Теория визуализации и теория компьютерной метафоры

V. L. Averbukh, Evolution of Human Computer Interaction // Scientific Visualization 12.5: 130 - 164, DOI: https://doi.org/10.26583/sv.12.5.11, 2020.

The work is devoted to the review of the development the human-computer interaction. In the first sections the history of computing in the "pre-computer" era is briefly described and then the early history of modern computing, methods of the first computers controlling and the tasks of programmers at this stage are described. It describes the methods of interaction with the first -generation computers using the remote control elements, punched cards and punched tapes. The section, devoted to the second generation computers, describes the emergence of high-level operating systems and programming languages. At this point, there are such means of interaction with the computer as the displays and, respectively, such programming tools as interactive languages and interactive debuggers. Research is also beginning on principles of human-computer interaction the infancy of the discipline "computer graphics", the development of computer graphics packages and the emergence of interactive computer graphics standards are considered. In the section “Revolutions in computer science” describes the appearance of a large number of the same series computers and the first super-computers in the context of human-computer interaction. Revolutionary changes are considered in computer graphics and emerging of the science discipline “computer visualization” with its parts “scientific visualization”, “software visualization”, “information visualization” and also “programming by demonstration”. The information about the attempt to create a fifth generation computer based on logical programming is given. It is told about the initial period of teaching programming. The creation of computer networks and the emergence of personal computing as well as the creation the tools of modern parallel computing have become the important stages in the development of modern computing. The virtual reality becomes an important computer visualization tool .

The modern state of human-computer interfaces is characterized primarily by emerging of natural interfaces which can be attributed Brain-Computer Interface (Neurocomputer interface, Brain-Computer Interfaces), interfaces based on the direct use of nerve impulses, speech recognition, recognition of lip movement, mimic recognition and eye tracking (Eye Gaze or Eye Tracking), haptic interfaces and also interfaces giving tactile feedback (allowing you to feel the touch),motion capture interfaces the entire human body or individual organs (head, entire arm, hands, fingers, legs), motion capture toolkits ,in particular, interfaces based on leg movements (foot-operated computer interfaces), sign interfaces, sign languages. We briefly describe the activity approach to the design of interfaces and also some problems concerning the problem of mass interfaces. Finally, we discuss a number of problems arising from the increasing capabilities of modern computers. The work is in the nature of a popular science article and it largely reflects the subjective impressions of the author.


Ключевые слова: history of human-computer interaction, computer graphics, computer visualization, computer networks, personal computing, natural interfaces.
Метки: Авербух В.Л.

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Специализированные системы визуализации
Научная визуализация и визуализация программного обеспечения для параллельных вычислений
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